Copyright 2024 - 2017
CEFR Journal - Research and Practice
CEFR Journal - Research and Practice, Volume 5
Date: December 31, 2022

Title: Comparability Study Between CEFR and CSE: An Exploration Using the LanguageCert Test of English

Page: 25-44

Author(s): David Coniam (LanguageCert), Michael Milanovic (LanguageCert), Wen Zhao (Jinan University, Guangzhou)


This article is open access and licensed under an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.


This paper outlines how different studies can be brought together to reveal how two separate examinations, based on different assessment frameworks, may be compared. The paper reports on data obtained from a cohort of a comparatively large sample of Chinese university test-takers who took two separate tests – the Chinese College English Test (CET), which is linked to the descriptive scales of the CSE (China Standards of English) and the LanguageCert Test of English (LTE) linked to the descriptive assessment framework of the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). In addition to the test-taking, two further studies were conducted.
Analysis indicated that it was possible to make reasonably definitive pronouncements about the comparability of the two frameworks in reading and language use. The findings contribute to the assessment research literature in that they provide relevant stakeholders with a means of comparing performances on either the LTE (linked to the CEFR scale) or the Chinese CET (linked to the CSE framework).These findings are particularly valuable for western institutions of higher education who, when considering the admission of Chinese students, postgraduate or other, are presented with CET results based on the CSE framework and LTE results based on the CEFR framework.


test validation, reading and language use, CEFR, CSE, self-assessment, expert judgement, Rasch measurement

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(Update March 6th, 2023 MGS)

This online toolkit is supported by KAKEN Grant-in-Aid project no. 20K00759, no. 19K00808 and no. 16K02835 and aims to support teachers of all foreign languages in Japan in using the CEFR and CEFR/CV efficiently.