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CEFR Journal - Research and Practice
CEFR Journal - Research and Practice, Volume 4
Date: December 20, 2021
Title: Foreign Language Education Reform through Action Research - Putting CEFR educational principles into practice
Page: 43 - 65
Author(s): Gregory Charles Birch (Seisen Jogakuin College), Jack Victor Bower (Tezukayama University), Noriko Nagai (Ibaraki University) and Maria Gabriela Schmidt (Nihon University)
This article is open access and licensed under an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.
Abstract: This research, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)1, has been undertaken by the JALT CEFR & LP SIG in order to support numerous small-scale action research (AR) projects related to foreign language teaching in Japan and beyond from April 2020 to March 2023. Practitioners invited to participate in the project will reflect on and find ways to improve their teaching practices using the CEFR as a reference and conceptual tool, and will be provided with support and guidance to ensure that their research is conducted systematically in relation to the AR literature and reflective of CEFR principles. This paper proposes a CEFR-focused AR model (CARM) based on a critical review of the AR literature. The CARM model is the product of the first-year of this research project (hereafter referred to as the Kaken research project). Our hope is that teacher-research guided by this model will produce robust findings that practitioners and other stakeholders in language programs will find both informative and of practical use.
Keywords: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), action research (AR), practitioner researcher, critical reflection
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(Last update March 6th, 2023 MGS)


This online toolkit is supported by KAKEN Grant-in-Aid project no. 20K00759, no. 19K00808 and no. 16K02835 and aims to support teachers of all foreign languages in Japan in using the CEFR and CEFR/CV efficiently.